Addressing the Cholera Crisis and Its Implications
South Africa recently faced a cholera outbreak resulting in at least 31 deaths across the provinces of Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and the Free State. President Cyril Ramaphosa publicly admitted the failure of the government in addressing water and sanitation issues. This event highlights the urgent need for improvements in water governance, infrastructure investments, and climate change adaptation strategies.
A History of Water Rights and Struggles
In 1996, South Africa declared the right to water, followed by the National Water Act in 1998. The country made impressive strides in providing water access to its population during Nelson Mandela’s presidency, increasing coverage from 60% in 1994 to 95% in 2013. However, this progress has regressed in recent years.
The cholera outbreak, with Hammanskraal as the epicenter, highlights the failures in governance, infrastructure investment, and the neglect of poor communities. The government’s negligence in providing clean water access and safe sanitation has exacerbated the situation.
Wastewater Treatment and Health Security
Preventing diseases like cholera, hepatitis A, and typhoid requires clean water access and safe sanitation. Efficient wastewater treatment is critical to maintaining health security. Investments in WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) infrastructure and pursuing Sustainable Development Goal 6 are essential.
South Africa’s lack of progress on wastewater treatment, particularly in the Rooiwal Wastewater Treatment Works, has been alarming. The government’s failure to address this issue could lead to class-action lawsuits and adverse human rights commission reports.
Climate-Resilient Water Systems and Innovation
South Africa has not adequately tapped into available scientific research and innovation for building climate-resilient water systems. As dams gain prominence as an energy storage mechanism, the water-energy nexus emerges as a solution for low-carbon trajectories.
Low-carbon sanitation solutions, such as those inspired by the Bill and Melinda Gates Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, rely on decentralized wastewater treatment and minimal water usage. These innovative systems also recover high-value chemicals, proteins, and lipids for non-consumptive uses.
A Call for Climate Adaptation and Resilience
The World Economic Forum warns that climate change is fueling the spread of infectious diseases and aggravating other health issues. Rising temperatures are expanding the vector boundaries of diseases like malaria and dengue, posing a threat to previously unaffected areas.
Investments in climate adaptation and resilience must be accelerated to mitigate these risks. South Africa’s approach to addressing the cholera outbreak and building long-term resilience depends on improving basic water governance.
Key Facts about Cholera
- Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease that can be fatal if left untreated.
- There are approximately 1.3 to 4.0 million cases and 21,000 to 143,000 deaths worldwide due to cholera each year.
- Most infected individuals have mild or no symptoms and can be treated with oral rehydration solution.
- Severe cases require rapid treatment with intravenous fluids and antibiotics.
- Provision of safe water and sanitation is crucial for controlling the transmission of cholera and other waterborne diseases.
- Oral cholera vaccines should be used alongside improvements in water and sanitation to prevent cholera outbreaks in high-risk areas.
Cholera is an acute diarrheal infection caused by ingesting contaminated food or water. It is an indicator of social inequity and lack of development, affecting both children and adults worldwide. Proper treatment and preventative measures, such as safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, are essential for controlling the spread of this disease.