Measles in Europe: An Overview and Preventive Measures

Measles continues to be a concern in various European countries, with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) reporting a steady transmission rate. For increased awareness and safety, this article provides an overview of the current situation, symptoms to watch for, and preventive measures individuals can take.

Measles continues to be a concern in various European countries, with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) reporting a steady transmission rate. For increased awareness and safety, this article provides an overview of the current situation, symptoms to watch for, and preventive measures individuals can take.

Current Measles Situation in Europe

As of 9 May 2023, the ECDC has reported measles cases in the following European countries:

  • Austria: 119 cases, primarily in the region of Styria
  • Germany: 41 cases
  • Hungary: 1 case
  • The Netherlands: a child’s death due to measles in March 2023
  • Sweden: 3 cases in Södermanland (1), Stockholm (1), and Västra Götaland (1)

Additionally, from January to March 2023, the WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHO EURO) reported 1,030 measles cases across several other European countries.

Understanding Measles and Its Symptoms

Measles is a highly contagious disease transmitted through sneezing, coughing, or direct contact with respiratory fluids. It can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

  • Rash
  • High temperature (fever)
  • Muscle aches

Moreover, measles can lead to serious complications if not addressed promptly.

Identifying Early Symptoms

Early detection is vital in managing measles. Be vigilant for the following initial symptoms:

  • High fever
  • Cough
  • Runny nose
  • Red, watery eyes (conjunctivitis)
  • Small white spots inside the mouth (Koplik’s spots)

These symptoms typically appear 10-14 days after exposure to the virus. The rash usually develops 3-5 days after the first symptoms appear, starting on the face and gradually spreading to the rest of the body.

Preventive Measures to Stay Safe from Measles

Preventing the spread of measles is crucial. Here are some recommendations for travelers and individuals:

For Travelers

  1. Ensure you have received two doses of the measles vaccine: Two doses of the measles vaccine (administered as part of the MMR vaccine in the UK) are necessary for lifelong protection. Consult your GP before traveling to confirm your vaccination status.

  2. Verify your immunity: If you have been previously infected with measles, you have lifelong immunity against the disease.

  3. Keep children up to date with vaccinations: The UK Vaccination Schedule includes an MMR vaccine dose at around 12-13 months and a second dose for children aged 3 years and 4 months. Consult your GP or travel health professional if you plan to visit an area with a high risk of measles exposure, as your child may be able to receive the vaccine earlier than usual.

For Everyone

  1. Practice proper hygiene: Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after coughing, sneezing, or being in contact with someone who is unwell.

  2. Avoid close contact with infected individuals: If you know someone with measles, steer clear of close contact to reduce your risk of contracting the disease.

  3. Stay informed: Keep up to date with measles cases and outbreaks in your area, particularly if you plan to travel.

By educating ourselves about measles and implementing preventive measures, we can work together to minimize the spread of this contagious disease. Stay vigilant, stay safe, and remember to consult your healthcare professional for personalized advice and recommendations.

Marburg Virus Disease in Equatorial Guinea: An Overview

Marburg virus disease (MVD) is a severe and often fatal illness caused by the Marburg marburgvirus (MARV). Originating in Africa, MVD has been responsible for numerous outbreaks with case fatality rates of up to 88%. Since its first detection in 1967, around 600 cases have been reported across multiple African countries.


Marburg virus disease (MVD) is a severe and often fatal illness caused by the Marburg marburgvirus (MARV). Originating in Africa, MVD has been responsible for numerous outbreaks with case fatality rates of up to 88%. Since its first detection in 1967, around 600 cases have been reported across multiple African countries.

This article aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the MVD outbreak in Equatorial Guinea in 2023. We will discuss the origins, current situation, measures taken, and precautions to ensure safety from the disease.

The Outbreak in Equatorial Guinea

On February 8th, 2023, the Ministry of Health of Equatorial Guinea reported an unknown disease causing haemorrhagic fever in two neighboring communities in the district Nsok-Nsomo, Kié-Ntem province. Five days later, the first MVD outbreak in the country was confirmed. The index case passed away in early January 2023, and the notification was sent on February 7th, 2023.

As of May 10th, 2023, 17 confirmed MVD cases have been reported, including 12 deaths and four recoveries, with one case of an unknown outcome. The affected districts are Ebibeyin (Kié-Ntem province), Evinayong (Centro Sur province), Nsork (Wele-Nzas province), and Bata (Litoral province).

Measures Taken by Authorities

The National Technical Committee of Health Emergencies, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, has been working to coordinate and strengthen disease control and prevention. The World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners are also supporting Equatorial Guinea and neighboring countries.

On February 14th, 2023, the Marburg virus vaccine consortium (MARVAC) held an emergency meeting, during which the WHO representative for Equatorial Guinea announced an increase in epidemiological surveillance and a 30-day response plan to assess the needs and impact of the current outbreak.

Understanding Marburg Virus Disease

MVD is a severe and rare disease caused by the Marburg marburgvirus (MARV). The virus has the potential to cause significant epidemics with high case fatality rates, making it a considerable concern for public health officials.

The symptoms of MVD usually appear between two and 21 days after exposure to the virus. Initial signs include fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and a general feeling of discomfort. As the disease progresses, more severe symptoms like diarrhea, vomiting, and rash may occur. In some cases, patients can develop severe hemorrhagic fever, which can be fatal.

There is no specific treatment for MVD, but early supportive care can improve the chances of survival. This care may include fluid replacement, maintaining blood pressure, and treating any occurring infections.

How to Stay Safe from Marburg Virus Disease

To minimize the risk of contracting MVD, it is essential to follow certain precautions, especially if traveling to or residing in affected areas:

  1. Avoid direct contact with blood and body fluids: MVD can be transmitted through direct contact with the blood, secretions, or other body fluids of infected people. Be cautious and avoid close contact with individuals who are suspected or confirmed to have the disease.

  2. Be mindful of infected surfaces and materials: The virus can also be transmitted through indirect contact with contaminated surfaces, such as clothing, bedding, and medical equipment. Ensure proper hygiene practices and avoid touching potentially contaminated items.

  3. Steer clear of bat habitats: Bats are known to harbor the Marburg virus. It is crucial to avoid entering caves or mines where bats may reside, especially in areas with known MVD outbreaks.

  4. Do not handle or consume bushmeat: Close contact with wild animals, like monkeys, forest antelopes, rodents, and bats, whether alive or dead, should be avoided. Additionally, refrain from manipulating or consuming any type of bushmeat.


The MVD outbreak in Equatorial Guinea in 2023 was a cause for concern. Although the disease is rare, it can lead to severe and often fatal consequences. The collaboration between local authorities, the WHO, and other partners has been crucial in managing the outbreak and implementing necessary measures. Following simple precautions can greatly reduce the risk of infection and ensure the safety of both residents and travelers in affected areas.

Dengue Outbreak in Sudan

**Dengue fever**, a severe flulike illness, is currently affecting Sudan, with the Ministry of Health reporting many confirmed and suspected cases. This comprehensive guide provides essential information about the outbreak, symptoms to watch for, and preventive measures to ensure safety.

Dengue fever, a severe flu-like illness, is currently affecting Sudan, with the Ministry of Health reporting many confirmed and suspected cases. This comprehensive guide provides essential information about the outbreak, symptoms to watch for, and preventive measures to ensure safety.

Dengue Fever: An Overview

Dengue fever is a viral infection in tropical and subtropical climates worldwide. It is transmitted through the bite of the Aedes mosquito, which is particularly persistent and aggressive.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

The first symptoms of dengue fever typically appear 4-7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. These symptoms include:

  • High fever (40°C/104°F)
  • Severe headache
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Rash
  • Fatigue
  • Swollen glands

Sometimes, dengue fever can progress to a more severe form, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). These conditions can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is crucial to seek medical help immediately. Prompt diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and reduce the risk of hospitalization.

The Current Outbreak in Sudan

The Sudanese Ministry of Health reported on April 26, 2023, that the country had an ongoing dengue outbreak. As of March 27, 2023, Khartoum has recorded 1,344 confirmed cases of dengue fever and 2,482 suspected cases. In addition, the Ministry has noted that most patients are concentrated in the Umbadda and Karari areas and other regions.

Preventing Dengue Fever: Tips and Strategies

Since no vaccine against dengue fever is available in the UK, prevention is crucial. Here are some tips and strategies to minimize your risk of contracting the illness:

Personal Protection Measures

  1. Avoid mosquito bites: The Aedes mosquito, which transmits dengue, is most active during the day, between dawn and dusk. It is essential to protect yourself from mosquito bites when in affected regions.
  2. Wear appropriate clothing: Cover your skin as much as possible by wearing long sleeves, long pants, and socks. Choose light-colored clothing, as mosquitoes are more attracted to dark colors.
  3. Use insect repellent: Apply a high-quality insect repellent containing DEET, picaridin, or IR3535 on exposed skin. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for proper application and reapply as necessary.
  4. Sleep under a mosquito net: If you stay in a location without screens on windows and doors, use a mosquito net treated with insecticide to protect yourself while sleeping.

Environmental Control Measures

  1. Eliminate breeding sites: Aedes mosquitoes lay their eggs in water. Regularly inspect your surroundings for potential breeding sites, such as flower pots, discarded tires, and blocked gutters. Empty, clean, or cover these containers to prevent mosquito breeding.
  2. Use screens and air conditioning: Install screens on windows and doors to prevent mosquitoes from entering your home. In addition, use air conditioning when available, as it can help reduce the number of mosquitoes indoors.
  3. Community efforts: Collaborate with neighbors and local authorities to implement mosquito control measures in your community.

What to Do if You Suspect Dengue Fever

If you develop a high fever during or after traveling to an affected area, seek medical advice immediately. Be sure to provide your recent travel history details to help with diagnosis and treatment. Early detection and proper care are essential to prevent complications and ensure a full recovery.

Resources and Further Information

To learn more about dengue fever and stay updated on the current outbreak in Sudan, consult reliable sources such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and your country’s health department.

Remember, prevention is the key to avoiding dengue fever. Stay informed, take necessary precautions, and seek medical help if symptoms arise. Stay safe and healthy during this outbreak.

Health Risks and Precautions for Travelers to Thailand’s Islands

The islands of Thailand, including Koh Samui and Koh Phangan, are famous for their stunning beaches and lively culture. While many trips to these destinations are usually without any problems, travelers should remain cautious of potential health risks and take necessary precautions to ensure a safe and pleasant vacation.

Travelers’ Diarrhea

Traveler’s diarrhea is a prevalent digestive system disorder that causes loose stools and stomach pain. It can happen when you consume contaminated food or water. Additionally, you may experience symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fever, and bloating.


  • Consume only adequately cooked food
  • Drink bottled water with an intact seal
  • Frequently wash hands with soap and water

Dengue Fever

Dengue fever is a viral illness transmitted through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Symptoms can range from mild to severe, including high fever, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, joint and muscle pain, rash, and mild bleeding.


  • Use mosquito repellents
  • Wear protective clothing
  • Stay in accommodations with air conditioning or screens on windows and doors


Malaria is a severe disease transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Symptoms may include fever, chills, sweating, headaches, muscle pains, nausea, and vomiting.


  • Consider taking antimalarial medication for rural area visits
  • Use mosquito repellents and sleep under mosquito nets
  • Wear long sleeves and pants during dusk to dawn hours

Zika Virus

Zika is a mosquito-borne virus that can also be sexually transmitted. Most infected people have no or mild symptoms like fever, rash, headache, joint pain, and red eyes. However, Zika infection during pregnancy can cause severe congenital disabilities.


  • Avoid mosquito bites and practice safe sex
  • Pregnant women should avoid travel to areas with Zika risk

Japanese Encephalitis (JE)

JE is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes, which can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) in severe cases, leading to high fever, disorientation, coma, tremors, and even death.


  • Get vaccinated against JE
  • Avoid mosquito bites, especially in rural areas

Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B

Hepatitis A and B are viral diseases that attack the liver. Hepatitis A is usually contracted from contaminated food or water, while Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infected blood, semen, or other body fluids.


  • Get vaccinated against both Hepatitis A and B
  • Practice good hygiene and avoid exposure to infected individuals

Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever is a result of the presence of Salmonella Typhi bacteria, which can spread through the consumption of contaminated water or food. The symptoms of this illness may include high fever, weakness, stomach pain, headache, and loss of appetite.


  • Get vaccinated against typhoid fever
  • Be cautious about food and drink choices


A bite or scratch from an animal with the deadly disease rabies usually spreads it. Initial symptoms include fever, pain, or an unusual sensation at the wound site, progressing to brain inflammation and death.


  • Avoid contact with animals
  • Seek immediate medical care if bitten or scratched
  • Consider getting a preventive rabies vaccine

Tuberculosis (TB)

TB is a contagious disease that primarily affects the lungs. Symptoms include a persistent cough, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. The risk to travelers is generally low unless they have prolonged close contact with active TB patients.


  • Avoid exposure to known TB patients
  • Consider pre-travel TB testing if living or working in high-risk environments

By taking the necessary precautions and consulting a travel medicine specialist or healthcare provider before traveling, travelers can minimize their risk of encountering these health issues and enjoy a safe and memorable trip to Thailand’s picturesque islands.

Food Safety While Travelling: Tips for a Healthy Journey

Eating and drinking safely while traveling is essential to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. This guide outlines the importance of personal hygiene, safe drinking water practices, making informed choices about food and drink, and how to handle food-related illnesses when traveling.

Personal Hygiene: The Foundation of Food Safety

Personal hygiene plays a crucial role in minimizing the risk of travel-related illnesses. Prioritize handwashing with soap and water after using the toilet and before eating or preparing food. Be extra cautious if traveling with young children. Use disposable wipes or alcohol-based hand sanitizers without clean water to maintain hygiene levels.

Ensuring Safe Drinking Water

Hydration is essential when traveling, but water safety should not be compromised. To ensure water is safe for drinking, adopt the following practices:

  • Drink bottled water from a reliable source and check that the seal is intact.
  • Use bottled water for brushing your teeth.
  • Boil tap water to a rolling boil (where large bubbles are visible).
  • Use a water purifier.
  • Disinfect water with iodine-based drinking water tablets.
  • Avoid ice cubes unless made from safe bottled water, as freezing water preserves bacteria.

Smart Eating and Drinking Choices

Make informed decisions about food and drink to protect yourself from foodborne illnesses:

  • Opt for food cooked at high heat, which is generally safe.
  • Be cautious of warm or room temperature food, such as buffets.
  • Apply the same rule to hot drinks – steaming hot is preferable.
  • Dry, packaged, and factory-sealed food (e.g., bread, potato chips, canned tuna) is usually safe if the packaging is intact.
  • Avoid raw food, including cut-up fresh fruit and vegetables, salads, raw meat, and uncooked seafood, as they are more likely to contain harmful bacteria.
  • Opt for steaming hot food straight off the grill when choosing street food.
  • Pregnant individuals or those with weakened immune systems should avoid unpasteurized dairy products like milk, yogurt, and cheese.

Managing Food-Related Illnesses

If you experience traveler’s diarrhea or food poisoning, follow these steps for recovery:

  1. Rest and stay hydrated with clean water or oral rehydration drinks.
  2. Use anti-diarrhea or anti-vomiting medication like loperamide-based medicines (e.g., Imodium).
  3. Gradually reintroduce simple foods like toast, crackers, bananas, and rice as your body recovers.

Top Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness

Follow these guidelines to stay safe from foodborne illnesses:

  1. Wash your hands frequently and thoroughly.
  2. Properly handle raw animal products to prevent cross-contamination.
  3. Clean and sanitize utensils, equipment, and surfaces.
  4. Use food before it expires.
  5. Keep animals away from food and food preparation areas.

By adhering to these food safety tips and maintaining good personal hygiene, travelers can minimize the risk of foodborne illnesses and enjoy a healthy journey.

Health Risks in Short-term Travelers to Developing Countries Part 2

Recruitment and Population Characteristics

The study analyzed data from short-term visitors to developing countries, with a high response rate to the questionnaire showing that most travelers are aware and concerned about possible medical problems. The mean age of the travelers was 39.9 years, and the mean duration of stay was 2.8 weeks. Health problems were significantly more frequent in young adults, visitors to West Africa, people on adventure tours, and those who lived with natives or worked abroad.

Illness and Accidents in Travelers

Malaria was found to be one of the most frequent health problems among travelers from every region, with 11 of the 12 definite or possible cases originating in Africa. Hepatitis A and non-A, non-B hepatitis affected 291.6 per 100,000 visitors to developing countries in the 2.8-week stay. Chronic diarrhea was found in 73 (0.9%) travelers, with the highest rate (1.8%) noted upon return from West Africa and after journeys through various regions of the Far East. Accidents affected 38 (0.5%) travelers, with the most severe cases resulting from traffic accidents or assaults.


Malaria was imported from Africa at a rate of 97.6 per 100,000 travelers, with an attack rate of 108.0 per 100,000 US travelers to Kenya. Increasing distribution of chloroquine-resistant parasites and growing concern about adverse reactions to prophylactic medication could lead to diminished protection and a further increase in malaria incidence.


The hepatitis incidence rate was significantly higher than in retrospective surveys, and it occurred exclusively in travelers who had not received prophylactic immunoglobulin. Therefore, prophylactic immunoglobulin might be suggested for each traveler to a developing country to prevent hepatitis A.

Typhoid Fever and Cholera

No cases of typhoid fever or cholera were reported in the study, indicating that typhoid vaccination should only be recommended for travelers “off the usual tourist itinerary” and those visiting certain high-risk countries. In addition, cholera vaccination should be restricted to those visiting countries still requiring a certificate despite World Health Assembly recommendations.


Only 8.5% of all travelers suffered from “severe” diarrhea, focusing on chronic or incapacitating forms. Higher infection rates are possible due to asymptomatic courses and spontaneous eradication of certain parasitic and bacterial intestinal infections. Diarrhea occurring after returning home tended to last longer and become chronic compared to cases occurring abroad.


Serious accidents were rare, with only 1% of travelers requiring hospitalization. However, travelers should be reminded to wear shoes while swimming over coral reefs and disinfect any lacerations. These measures would avoid a significant proportion of cases with subsequent inability to work.

Differences between Travelers to Developing Countries and Control Group

In the control group of travelers to the Greek or Canary Islands, far fewer serious health problems were reported. No cases of severe infection were confirmed, and only dermatological problems and accidents occurred slightly more frequently in the control group.


This study provides a comprehensive and updated analysis of the health risks faced by short-term travelers to developing countries. The results highlight the importance of destination-specific and age-related differences in the risk of illness and accidents. High-risk travelers require more detailed medical recommendations, and prophylactic measures should be tailored accordingly.

Health Risks in Short-term Travelers to Developing Countries


Approximately 8 percent of travelers to developing countries require medical care during or after travel. However, the current understanding of morbidity profiles among ill-returned travelers is based on limited data from the 1980s. The GeoSentinel sites, specialized travel or tropical-medicine clinics on six continents, contributed clinician-based sentinel surveillance data for 17,353 ill-returned travelers. The study aimed to compare the frequency of each diagnosis among travelers returning from six developing regions worldwide.


Data were collected from June 1996 through August 2004. The characteristics of each patient were documented, and the diagnoses were categorized into 21 major syndrome categories. By analyzing the data, the study aimed to verify the assumption that the travel destination is associated with the probability of each diagnosis among travelers returning from the developing world.

Overall Morbidity

The median travel duration ranged from 14 days for the Caribbean to 35 days for South America. Most patients (64%) were seen within a month after travel, while 10% had indolent diseases or diseases with a long incubation period and were not seen until more than six months after the journey.

Destination Analysis

Significant differences in proportionate morbidity were seen among the travel regions for 16 of the 21 syndrome categories. In particular, systemic febrile illness was found disproportionately among patients presenting to GeoSentinel sites after traveling to sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia, and acute diarrhea among those presenting after traveling to south-central Asia.

Regional Morbidity According to Specific Diagnosis

Malaria was the most frequent cause of systemic febrile illness among travelers from every region. Travelers with dengue presented more frequently than malaria for every area except sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. Rickettsial infections, primarily tick-borne spotted fever, appeared almost exclusively among travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa, and typhoid fever was a primary contributor to systemic febrile illness among travelers from south-central Asia.

For all regions except Southeast Asia, parasite-induced diarrhea was more common among ill-returned travelers than bacterial diarrhea. Insect bites were the most common cause of dermatologic problems, followed by cutaneous larva migrans, allergic reactions, and skin abscesses. Leishmaniasis was primarily found among patients who had traveled to South America or, to a lesser extent, Central America.

Rare Diagnoses

Rare or exotic diagnoses, such as Ebola virus disease, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever, did not occur among the 17,353 travelers whose data were analyzed in this study. However, some rare diagnoses occurred only once among travelers, such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis infestation and hantavirus infection.

Proportionate Morbidity According to Region

Travel destinations are associated with the probability of the diagnosis of certain diseases. These destination-specific differences can guide diagnostic approaches and empiric therapies. This information can be helpful for health providers in assessing the health risks faced by travelers to developing countries and guiding post-travel diagnosis and empiric treatment. It can also aid in prioritizing pretravel intervention strategies.

Travel-Related Diseases

What Are Travel-Related Diseases?

Travel-related diseases are illnesses that arise as a direct result of traveling to a new location, whether domestically or internationally. These diseases can range from mild to severe, and in some cases, can be fatal if left untreated. Common travel-related diseases include malaria, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and yellow fever.

Causes of Travel-Related Diseases

There are various causes of travel-related diseases, such as:

  • Being bitten by an infected mosquito, tick, or other insect
  • Consuming contaminated food and drinks
  • Exposure to infected individuals
  • Improper use of medications intended to prevent specific diseases
  • Lack of proper hygiene
  • Not receiving appropriate vaccinations

Common Symptoms

Symptoms of travel-related diseases can range from mild to severe. Some common symptoms associated with specific diseases include:

  • Malaria: Flu-like symptoms, such as chills and high fever
  • Tuberculosis: Chest pain, weight loss, chills or fever, loss of appetite, night sweats, and a cough lasting three or more weeks with blood
  • Typhoid fever: Stomach pain or headaches, prolonged high fever, loss of appetite, rash, constipation, and weakness
  • Yellow fever: Body aches, headaches, fever, and chills that may take three to six days to manifest

Treatment Options

Treatment options are specific to the disease and may include:

  • Hydration: Maintaining proper hydration is vital, especially for diseases that cause dehydration
  • Medication: Antibiotics or other medications may be prescribed to combat the disease
  • Rest: Time resting in a hospital may be necessary for certain diseases
  • Surgical intervention: In cases where typhoid fever causes intestinal damage, surgery may be required

Prevention and Preparation

To reduce the risk of travel-related illnesses, it is crucial to prepare before traveling and take preventive measures such as:

  • Consulting a pediatric travel medicine specialist for children
  • Updating routine vaccines
  • Receiving specialized travel vaccines
  • Using preventive medicines
  • Appropriately using insect repellents containing DEET or picaridin

Common Travel-Related Illnesses

Some common travel-related illnesses include:

  • Diarrheal disease: Acquired by consuming contaminated water and food
  • Hepatitis A: Acquired by consuming contaminated water and food
  • Malaria: Caused by a parasite and acquired through the bite of an infected mosquito
  • Dengue fever: A viral illness acquired through the bite of a mosquito
  • Parasitic infections: Acquired through contaminated food, swimming or wading in infested water, or walking barefoot
  • Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that usually attacks the lungs and is transmitted person-to-person
  • Typhoid fever: A bacterial illness that spreads through contaminated food and water or close contact with an infected person
  • Yellow fever: A virus that spreads to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito
  • Japanese encephalitis: A virus that is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis
  • Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection acquired by contact with contaminated fresh water
  • Chikungunya: A viral illness that spreads to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito
  • Rabies: A deadly virus that spreads to people from the saliva of infected animals, usually through animal bites

Travel-Associated Illness (TAI) and Emerging Global Threats

As international travel becomes more common, so does the risk of travel-associated illness (TAI). With globalization, it is essential to raise awareness, improve surveillance, and foster collaboration to address infectious diseases and emerging global threats. Health care professionals should encourage patients to discuss travel plans, obtain a thorough travel and occupational history, and be knowledgeable about travel specialists, as well as common TAI and emerging global threats.